Every once in a while it comes to my attention that edb360 takes several hours to run. What can be done? My advice is to let it run for several hours if possible. In most environment it completes in less that 1 hour, but I have seen cases where it may take 5 or 6. The reason is simple: too many SQL statements to execute. And some of those queries are executed on top of large historical sets. The good news is that edb360, as it executes each script, it compresses the output and catalogues it inside the main output ZIP file. So, even if you have to stop edb360 after hours of execution, the output is useful. On top of that, the least relevant collection happens at the end, so within the first hour or so you most probably have the essence of your system. Then, if you find yourself in a situation where edb360 has been in execution for several hours and you decide to kill it, please still use the output ZIP file. Also, within that file there are a couple of logs that can help to determine where exactly it got “stuck” (meaning which query is taking longer in your system). Since we don’t know in advance if edb360 will take more than 1hr to run, the best time to start its execution is at the end of a normal work day, or during the weekend.
Introducing the eDB360 Tool (Sep 30, 2014)
SQLT XPLORE: The SQLT XPLAIN hidden child (Jun 21, 2014)
SQL Tuning Tools of the Trade (Jun 21, 2014)
SQL Tuning made easier with SQLTXPLAIN (SQLT) (Jun 21, 2014)
Using SQL Plan Management (SPM) to balance Plan Flexibility and Plan Stability (Jun 21, 2014)
Understanding How is that Adaptive Cursor Sharing (ACS) produces multiple Optimal Plans (Jun 21, 2014)
Enkitec’s Sizing and Provisioning (eSP) is a new internal tool designed and developed with Oracle Engineered Systems in mind. Thanks to the experience and insights from Randy Johnson, Karl Arao and Frits Hoogland, what began as a pet project for some of us, over time became an actual robust APEX/PLSQL application, developed by Christoph Ruepprich and myself, and ready to debut at Oracle Open World 2014.
This posting is about eSP, what it does, and how it helps on the sizing and provisioning of Oracle Engineered System, or I would rather say, any System where Oracle runs.
We used to size Engineered Systems using a complex and very useful spread sheet developed by Randy Johnson and Karl Arao. Now, it is the turn for eSP to take the next step, and move this effort forward into a more scalable application that sits on top of one of our Exadata machines.
Sizing an Engineered System
Sizing a System can be quite challenging, especially when the current system is composed of several hosts with multiple databases of diverse use, size, versions, workloads, etc. The new target system may also bring some complexities; as the number of possible configurations grows, finding the right choice becomes harder. Then we also have the challenge of disk redundancy, recovery areas, the potential benefits of offloading with their smart scans, just to mention some added complexities.
At a very high level, Sizing a System is about 3 entities: Resources, Capacity and Utilization. Resources define what I call “demand”, which is basically the set of computational resources from your original System made of one or many databases and instances over some hosts. Capacity, which I also call it “supply”, is the set of possible target Systems with their multiple Configurations, in other words Engineered Systems, or any other hardware capable to host Oracle databases. Utilization, which I may also refer as “allocation” is where the magic and challenge resides. It is a clever and unbiassed mapping between databases and configurations, then between instances and nodes. This mapping has to consider at the very least CPU footprint, Memory for SGA and PGA, database disk space, and throughput in terms of IOPS and MBPS. Additional constraints, as mentioned before, include redundancy and offloading among others. CPU can be a bit tricky since each CPU make and model has its own characteristics, so mapping them requires the use of SPEC.
Other challenge a Sizing tool has to consider is the variability of the Resources. The question becomes: Do we see the Resources as a worst case scenario, or shall we rather consider them as time series? In other words, do we compute and use peaks, or do we observe the use of Resources over time, then develop some methods to aggregate them consistently as time series? If we decide to use a reduced set of data points, do we use peaks or percentiles? if the latter, which percentile is well balanced? 99.9, 99, 95 or maybe 90? How conservative are those values? There are so many questions and the answer for most of them, as you may guess is: “it all depends”.
How eSP Works
Without getting into the technical details, I can say that eSP is an APEX application with a repository on an Oracle database, which inputs collected “Requirements” from the databases to be sized, then it processes these Requirements and prepares them to be “Allocated” into one or more defined hardware configurations. The process is for the most part “automated”, meaning this: we execute some tool or script in the set of hosts where the databases reside, then upload the output of these collectors into eSP and we are ready to Plan and apply “what-if” scenarios. Having an Exadata System as our work engine, it allows this eSP application to scale quite well. A “what-if” scenario takes as long as it takes to navigate APEX pages,while all the computations are done in sub-seconds behind scenes, thanks to Exadata!
Once we load the Resources from the eSP collector script, or from the eAdam tool, we can start playing with the metadata. Since eSP’s set of known Configurations (Capacity) include current Engineered Systems (X4), allocating Configurations is a matter of seconds, then mapping databases and instances becomes the next step. eSP contains an auto “allocate” algorithm for databases and instances, where we can choose between a “balanced” allocation or one that is “dense” with several density factors to choose from (100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%). With all these automated options, we can try multiple sizing and allocation possibilities in seconds, regardless if we are Sizing and Provisioning for one database or a hundred of them.
eSP and OOW
The Enkitec’s Sizing and Provisioning (eSP) tool is an internal application that we created to help our customers to Size their next System or Systems in a sensible manner. The methods we implemented are transparent and unbiassed. We are bringing eSP to Oracle Open World 2014. I will personally demo eSP at our assigned booth, which is #111 at the Moscone South. I will be on and off the booth, so if you are interested on a demo please let me know, or contact your Enkitec/Accenture representative. We do prefer appointments, but walk-ins are welcomed. Hope to see you at OOW!
Oracle Application Express (APEX) is a great tool to rapidly develop applications on top of an Oracle database. While developing an internal application we noticed that some pages were slow, meaning taking a few seconds to refresh. Suspecting there was some poorly performing SQL behind those pages, we tried to generate a SQL Trace so we could review the generated SQL. Well, there is no out-of-the-box instrumentation to turn SQL Trace ON from an APEX page… Thus our challenge became: How can we identify suspected SQL performing poorly, when such SQL is generated by an APEX page?
Active Session History (ASH) requires an Oracle Diagnostics Pack License. If your site has such a License, and you need to identify poorly performing SQL generated by APEX, you may want to use find_apex.sql script below. It asks for an application user and for the APEX session (a list is provided in both cases). It outputs a list of poorly performing SQL indicating the APEX page of origin, the SQL_ID and the SQL text. With the SQL_ID you can use some other tool in order to gather additional diagnostics details, including the Execution Plan. You may want to use for that: planx.sql, sqlmon.sql or sqlash.sql. Note that find_apex.sql script also references sqld360.sql, but this new tool is not yet available, so use one of the other 3 suggestions for the time being (or SQLHC/SQLT).
To find poorly performing SQL, script find_apex.sql uses ASH instead of SQL Trace. If the action on a page takes more than a second, then most probably ASH will capture the poorly performing SQL delaying the page.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- -- File name: find_apex.sql -- -- Purpose: Finds APEX poorly performing SQL for a given application user and session -- -- Author: Carlos Sierra -- -- Version: 2014/09/03 -- -- Usage: Inputs APEX application user and session id, and outputs list of poorly -- performing SQL statements for further investigation with other tools. -- -- Example: @find_apex.sql -- -- Notes: Developed and tested on 184.108.40.206. -- -- Requires an Oracle Diagnostics Pack License since ASH data is accessed. -- -- To further investigate poorly performing SQL use sqld360.sql -- (or planx.sql or sqlmon.sql or sqlash.sql). -- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- WHENEVER SQLERROR EXIT SQL.SQLCODE; ACC confirm_license PROMPT 'Confirm with "Y" that your site has an Oracle Diagnostics Pack License: ' BEGIN IF NOT '&&confirm_license.' = 'Y' THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR(-20000, 'You must have an Oracle Diagnostics Pack License in order to use this script.'); END IF; END; / WHENEVER SQLERROR CONTINUE; -- COL seconds FOR 999,990; COL appl_user FOR A30; COL min_sample_time FOR A25; COL max_sample_time FOR A25; COL apex_session_id FOR A25; COL page FOR A4; COL sql_text FOR A80; -- SELECT COUNT(*) seconds, SUBSTR(client_id, 1, INSTR(client_id, ':') - 1) appl_user, MIN(sample_time) min_sample_time, MAX(sample_time) max_sample_time FROM gv$active_session_history WHERE module LIKE '%/APEX:APP %' GROUP BY SUBSTR(client_id, 1, INSTR(client_id, ':') - 1) HAVING SUBSTR(client_id, 1, INSTR(client_id, ':') - 1) IS NOT NULL ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2 / -- ACC appl_user PROMPT 'Enter application user: '; -- SELECT MIN(sample_time) min_sample_time, MAX(sample_time) max_sample_time, SUBSTR(client_id, INSTR(client_id, ':') + 1) apex_session_id, COUNT(*) seconds FROM gv$active_session_history WHERE module LIKE '%/APEX:APP %' AND SUBSTR(client_id, 1, INSTR(client_id, ':') - 1) = TRIM('&&appl_user.') GROUP BY SUBSTR(client_id, INSTR(client_id, ':') + 1) ORDER BY 1 DESC / -- ACC apex_session_id PROMPT 'Enter APEX session ID: '; -- SELECT COUNT(*) seconds, SUBSTR(h.module, INSTR(h.module, ':', 1, 2) + 1) page, h.sql_id, SUBSTR(s.sql_text, 1, 80) sql_text FROM gv$active_session_history h, gv$sql s WHERE h.module LIKE '%/APEX:APP %' AND SUBSTR(h.client_id, 1, INSTR(h.client_id, ':') - 1) = TRIM('&&appl_user.') AND SUBSTR(h.client_id, INSTR(h.client_id, ':') + 1) = TRIM('&&apex_session_id.') AND s.sql_id = h.sql_id AND s.inst_id = h.inst_id AND s.child_number = h.sql_child_number GROUP BY SUBSTR(h.module, INSTR(h.module, ':', 1, 2) + 1), h.sql_id, SUBSTR(s.sql_text, 1, 80) ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2, 3 / -- PRO Use sqld360.sql (or planx.sql or sqlmon.sql or sqlash.sql) on SQL_ID of interest
This script as well as some others are now available on GitHub.
Performance Metrics are easier to digest if visualized trough some Line Charts. OEM, eDB360, eAdam and other tools use them. If you already have a SQL Statement that provides the Performance Metrics you care about, and just need to generate a Line Chart for them, you can easily create a CSV file and open it with MS-Excel. But if you want to build an HTML Report out of your SQL, that is a bit harder, unless you use existing technologies. Tools like eDB360 and eAdam use Google Charts as a mechanism to easily generate such Charts. A peer asked me if we could have such functionality stand-alone, and that challenged me to create and share it.
This HTML Line Chart Report above was created with script line_chart.sql shown below. The actual chart, which includes Zoom functionality on HTML can be downloaded from this Dropbox location. Feel free to use this line_chart.sql script as a template to display your Performance Metrics. It can display several series into one Chart (example above shows only one), and by reviewing code below you will find out how easy it is to adjust to your own needs. Chart above was created using a simple query against the Oracle Sample Schema SH, but the actual use could be Performance Metrics or any other Application time series.
Enkitec’s Oracle AWR Data Mining Tool
EAdam is a free tool that extracts from an Oracle database a subset of data and metadata with the objective to perform some data mining using a separate staging Oracle database. The data extracted is relevant to Performance Evaluations (PE) and/or to Sizing and Provisioning (SP) projects. Most of the data eAdam extracts is licensed by Oracle under the Diagnostics Pack, and some under the Tuning Pack. Therefore, in order to use this eAdam tool, the source database must be licensed to use both Oracle Packs (Tuning and Diagnostics).
To a point, eAdam is similar to eDB30; both access the Data Dictionary in order to produce some reports. The key difference is that eDB360 generates all the reports doing some intensive processing at the source database, while eAdam simply extracts a set of flat files into a TAR file, using a very light-weight script, delaying all the intensive processing for a later time and on a separate staging system. This feature can be very attractive for busy systems where the amount of processing of any external monitoring tool needs to be minimized.
On the source system, eAdam only needs to execute a short script to extract the data and metadata of interest, producing a dense TAR file. On a staging system, eAdam does the heavy lifting, requiring the creation of a repository, the load of this repository and finally the computation of meaningful reports. The processing of the TAR file into the staging system is usually performed by the requestor, using a lower-level database, or a remote one.
EAdam has two primary uses, listed here in order of frequency of use: 1) Performance Evaluation (PE) of an Oracle database, and 2) Sizing and Provisioning (SP) project for an Oracle database. Of course the list of uses is not comprehensive; as you may appreciate from the objects extracted, at the very least Active Session History (ASH) can be used to view performance data in more than one dimension. The list of objects eAdam extracts as flat files from the source database includes the following:
EADAM works on 10gR2, 11gR2, and on higher releases of Oracle; and it can be used on Linux or UNIX Platforms. It has not been tested on Windows. An eAdam sample output is available at this Dropbox location; after downloading the sample output, look for the 0001_eadam36_N_dbname_index.html file and start browsing.
Instructions – Source Database
Download the tool, uncompress the master ZIP file, and look for file eadam-master/source_system/eadam_extract.sql. Review and execute this single and short script connecting to the source database as SYS. Locate the TAR file produced, and send it to the requestor.
Be aware that the TAR file produced by the extraction process can be large, so be sure you execute this extract script from a directory with at least 10 GB of free space. Common sizes of this TAR file range between 100 MB and 1 GB. Execution time for this extraction process may exceed 1 hour, depending on the size of the Data Dictionary.
Instructions – Staging Database
Be sure you have both the eAdam tool (eadam-master.zip) and the TAR file produced on a source system. Your staging database can be of equal, higher or lower release level than the source, but equal or higher is recommended. The Platform can be the same or different.
To install, load and report on the staging database, proceed with the following steps:
- Create on the staging system a file directory available to Oracle for read and write. Most probably you want to create this directory connecting to OS as Oracle and create a new directory like /home/oracle/eadam-master. Put in there the content of the eadam-master.zip file.
- Create the eAdam repository on the staging database. This step is needed only one time. Follow instructions from the readme.txt. Basically you need to execute eadam-master/stage_system/eadam_install.sql connected as SYS. This script asks for 4 parameters: Tablespace names for permanent and temporary schema objects, and the username and password of the new eAdam account. For the username I recommend eadam, but you can use any valid name.
- Load the data contained in the TAR file into the database. To do this you need first to copy the TAR file into the eadam-master/stage_system sub-directory and execute next the stage_system/eadam_load.sql script while on the stage_system sub-directory and connecting as SYS. This script asks for 4 parameters. Pass first the directory path of your stage_system sub-directory, for example /home/oracle/eadam-master/stage_system (this sub-directory must contain the TAR file). Pass next the username and password of your eadam account as you created them. Pass last the name of the TAR file to be loaded into the database.
- The load process performs some data transformations and it produces at the end an output similar to eDB360 but smaller in content. After you review the eAdam output, you may decide to generate new output for shorter time series, in such case use the eadam-master/stage_system/eadam_report.sql connecting as the eadam user. This reporting process asks for 3 parameters. Pass the EADAM_SEQ_ID which identifies your particular load (a list of values is displayed), then pass the range of dates using format YYYY-MM-DD/HH24:MI, for example 2014-07-27/17:33.
EADAM @ GitHub is available as free software. You can see its readme.txt, license.txt or any other piece of the tool before downloading it. Use this link eadam-master.zip to actually download eAdam as a compressed file.
Please post your feedback about this eAdam tool at this blog, or send and email directly to the tool author: Carlos Sierra.
Enkitec’s Oracle Database 360-degree View
EDB360 is a free tool that executes on an Oracle database and produces a compressed file which includes a large set of small Reports. This set of Reports provides a 360-degree view of an Oracle Database. EDB360 is mostly used for one of the following 3 reasons, listed here in order of frequency of use: 1) Keystone of an Oracle database Health-Check. 2) Kick-off for an Oracle database Performance Evaluation. 3) High-level view of System Resources demand and utilization for an Oracle database Sizing and Provisioning project.
Usually, Developers, Sys Admins and Consultants are not given open access to a database in a Production environment. This eDB360 free tool helps approved users to become familiar with an Oracle database in a non-intrusive way. Without installing anything on the database, the eDB360 tool connects to an Oracle database and produces a large set of flat files that can be reviewed offline while using an HTML browser or a Text editor.
EDB360 can be executed by someone with very limited access to an Oracle database (i.e. a Developer, Sys Admin or Consultant with just query access to the Data Dictionary views); or if executed by an authorized DBA, there is no actual need to provide any additional access to the Oracle database to the party requesting eDB360.
EDB360 works on 10gR2, 11gR2, and on higher releases of Oracle; and it can be used on Linux or UNIX Platforms. It has not been tested on Windows. An eDB360 sample output is available at this Dropbox location; after downloading the sample output, look for the 0001_edb360_dbname_index.html file and start browsing.
Download the eDB360 tool and review the readme.txt file included. Uncompress the eDB360 master ZIP file on the Database Server of interest. Navigate to the main eDB360 (master) directory and execute script edb360.sql connected as SYS or any other account with access to the Data Dictionary views (a DBA account is not required but it is preferred).
Execution time for eDB360 may exceed 1 hour, depending on the size of the Data Dictionary. And the size of the output may reach 1 GB, so be sure you execute this tool from a file system directory with at least 1 GB or free space. Common sizes of the output range between 10 and 100 MB.
EDB360 has only two execution parameters:
- Oracle Pack License: A big portion of the information presented by eDB360 comes from Oracle’s Automatic Workload Repository (AWR), and AWR is licensed by Oracle under the Diagnostics Pack. A small part of the output of eDB360 comes from the SQL Monitoring repository, which is part of the Oracle Tuning Pack. This parameter accepts one of 3 values: “T”, “D” or “N”. If you database is licensed under the Oracle Tuning Pack, enter then the value of “T”. If your database is not licensed to use the Oracle Tuning Pack but it is licensed to use the Oracle Diagnostics Pack, enter “D” then. If your site is not licensed on any of these two Oracle Packs, enter “N” then. Be aware that a value of “N” reduces substantially the content and value of the output. Thus the preferred parameter value is “T” (Oracle Tuning Pack).
- Days of History?: Assuming you pass a value of “T” or “D” on the 1st parameter, this second parameter defines how many days of History are accessed by eDB360 out of AWR. The default value is 31, but if your actual AWR setup preserves only 8 days (AWR default), then eDB360 will limit its content to the smaller of the two. For most cases, the default value of 31 is the right one to choose, specially when unsure about the actual AWR retention period.
# unzip edb360-master.zip # cd edb360-master # sqlplus / as sysdba SQL> @edb360.sql T 31
EDB360 @ GitHub is available as free software. You can see its readme.txt, license.txt or any other piece of the tool before downloading it. Use this link edb360-master.zip to actually download eDB360 as a compressed file.
Please post your feedback about this eDB360 tool at this blog, or send and email directly to the tool author: Carlos Sierra.